職場只是禾場? – 周志堅

職場只是禾場?

https://bit.ly/3OVJzCQ

職場只是禾場?  大部份教會只教導信徒視職場為禾場,傳福音的地方而已。至於信了福音之後,生命如何成長,如何成聖,如何面對試探,都是這位信徒受洗教會的職能。在職場之中,沒有太多人注重。專職牧者 (Chaplains) 是神職人員,蒙召服事教會以外的上帝子民百姓。專職牧者大量在各種行業出現,成為信徒得牧養關懷的一種盼望和渠道…

專職牧者(Chaplaincy)

Blessing Others

Chaplaincy 專職牧者牧養主圈外之羊

基督教專職牧者(Chaplaincy) 的核心是臨場職事 (Ministry of Presence), 這使我們的事工與教牧輔導,和教會牧養分別出來。Chaplain 專職牧者不是教牧,雖然很多人都是由教會按立的牧師擔當,我們的工作要求與教牧不同,不是植堂、不是宣教,乃是在世上服事工作和生活中的人群,(如紀律部隊,監獄、醫院、運動員、企業、企業職場僱員等等)把基督真理、福音信息,來自基督的關懷和鼓勵在所屬的群體傳揚和分享。

但只是靈性關懷並不全面表達基督教專職牧者的工作。我們不單關懷鼓勵,更是基督的地上代表,愛的天使,更是 Minister of Presence (基督)臨場的事奉神,服事人。

神學反省

我的工作既代表神的臨在(所以要不斷地神學反省),也要服事人(給予所需的身心社靈的全人關懷和服事)。

正如我文章所提倡,我們有十二種可干預的方法,包括教導、引領、陪伴、聆聽、提供宗教儀式、禱告、支援…等等。

近年 Chaplaincy 事工的理念

Chaplaincy Books

這是都是近年 chaplaincy 事工的理念。在我年代的 CPE 只提活人字典,病人是老師、主調是把 chaplaincy 當作一種臨場牧養和全人關懷的方法。沒有提昇到奉父、子、靈之名,接觸人、服事人,榮耀神的層次。

我們在職場服事的專職牧者還未普遍接受為神職人員,以前聖公會牧者服事醫院、軍隊、貧苦大眾大部份都是牧師。現在卻不必要是了。

Chaplaincy 的發展

2000年後大部份我看過的 Chaplaincy 的書都不限於醫院院牧事工,大抵持我上述的觀念。Chaplains 是神職人員,蒙召服事教會以外的上帝子民百姓。這是 chaplaincy 界的共識。在香港還要推動。

職場事工

「我是好牧人;好牧人為羊捨命。若是雇工,不是牧人,羊也不是他自己的,他看見狼來,就撇下羊逃走;狼抓住羊,趕散了羊群。雇工逃走,因他是雇工,並不顧念羊。我是好牧人;我認識我的羊,我的羊也認識我, 正如父認識我,我也認識父一樣;並且我為羊捨命。我另外有羊,不是這圈裡的;我必須領他們來,他們也要聽我的聲音,並且要合成一群,歸一個牧人了。」

—- 約翰福音 十章11-16

問:「這樣看來,教會的教牧須要有院牧的靈性關顧装備去關顧弟兄姊妹靈的需要,而院牧则未必需要有装備如何牧養教會….」

臨場職事 Ministry of Presence

說得對。CPE 設計是給教牧學習多一點 ministry of presence 去進行教會或醫院中病人牧養關顧。院牧既是教牧,又學了院牧,可以雙線發展。

Pasturing Outside the Gate

Clinicle Pastoral Education 臨床牧關

但在其他非病人群體,如職埸,很多擔任牧養的人都是平信徒領袖或義工,沒有受過教牧的訓練,也絕大部份沒有受過CPE, 所以這些牧者對主羊的牧養關懷,一般停留在平日一起查經,遇事聆聽、分享經驗、代禱、陪伴、同行、甚至轉介教會或專業輔導尋求幫助的層面上。

最近在職場牧養關懷的博士論文研究中,訪問了七位不同的職場牧者及十位信徒,未發現他們之間有全身心靈關顧,臨場牧飬關懷,靈魂關顧 Soul Care。這是很可惜的現象。

只教導信徒視職場為禾場

更遺憾的是教會只教導信徒視職場為禾場,責任只在傳福音,傳了福音,牧養生命成長的責任就不在職場,要交回受洗的教會處理。如此大部份職場主羊都流失了,不得牧養。這種片面的對職場神學理解,正害了教會、害了職場,料主很不高興。

有關文章

1`. Workplace Chaplaincy – The Rise, The Needs, and Its Path for Development in Hong Kong   https://bit.ly/3eucFLJ

2. |職場神學| 工作中的三一神: 周志堅    https://bit.ly/3zPa321

3. 工作即禱告、禱告即工作….周志堅   本文連結: https://bit.ly/3SCO72w

4. https://www.regent-college.edu/about-us/news/2012/marketplace-institute-establishes-relationship-with-hong-kong-university

5.  放下被需要、被認同、放棄要操控一切: 周志堅 : https://bit.ly/3vQKs7p

6. 上好的福份   經文默想 路加福音十38-42   https://bit.ly/3SySM5x

7. 行在神的命定之中  周志堅 2022/7/25    本文連結: https://bit.ly/3cJXwVm

8. 活在失序的世界? 退修默想 – 周志堅 7/23/2022本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3PU6ttD

9. CPE 的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence in CPE) – 周志堅博士 https://bit.ly/394ZcaE

10. 翁麗玉牧師學習婚姻輔導    https://bit.ly/3jMNgw4

 

 

 

一切都有神的預備: 我的異象,我的方向 – 周志堅

一切都有神的預備 – 我的異象,我的方向

https://bit.ly/3MLBmQD

主,多謝你在我生命中引領我、裝備我,使用我。路是窄路,我順服。我無怨無悔。以你為樂。我會守著這異象。為你,也獻給你這項硏究。這是你多年裝備我,引領我,仿效你牧飬圈外之羊,領歸大牧者管理。
Marketplace Ministry - Augustine Chow
主,我有千般心事,要向你禱告謝恩
 昨天是我生命中重要的一天,因為我想通了,而且開始從歸納法和演繹法兩進路開始,進行教牧學「職埸牧飬關懷」的一次質性研究,而這硏究,原來來是你在2016年給我看到兩本書:「教牧輔導學」及「教牧心理治療」,領受了成為「職場牧者」的呼召開始。

「職場牧者」的呼召

回想起來,從小到大,你已將一顆不甘心的研究的心賜予我,並不斷在裝備我從事研究。
我第一次接觴市場研究是在1976年剛從李金漢博士學習「市場研究」。那年我在中大市場系三年級生,因為剛到接觸到市場學也可以為非謀利機構開拓市場,生命不再銅臭而興奮。
我在課程中做了一次紅十會捐血市場研究,探討人為什麼會捐血。當年得到紅十字香港總監支持,差派紅十字會青年軍,做了一次一生唯一的一次分區分大廈隨機抽様家訪。我清楚記得當我用廻歸分折,找出捐血原因和捐了一次的人,大幅下落不再捐血的結果。當總監問我怎麼辦。我啞口無言,因為研究從沒想過會有這發現。
你給我在研究上的裝備是豐盛的。從美國取得MBA 回來,我讀了MIS 專業,有機會在大通銀行從事市場研究與產品開發。當年和各市埸硏究公司如 SRH 等合作,多不勝數。基本上,什麼質性研究、量性硏究都做過。
由於這份勇氣和天真,1987年我報讀中大兼讀市場學博士,再次跟隨李金漢導師學習學術硏究,用了八年完成一份學術論文,一次過無須修改,通過學術答辯。

香港自由市場指數

博士畢業後,膽粗粗做了一項「香港自由市場指數編製」,經政策研究所出版成報告書,現今仍收藏在中央圖書館。
神沒有讓我停在這裡。幾年的管理顧問生涯,讓我投入企業顧問硏究,大數據分析、企業數碼轉型研究。後來成為香港最大銀行的市務主管,掌控一個1個近九位數字的廣告預算,和七位數字的市場研究預算,和銀行的大數據分析,幾乎什麼想得出的硏究都做過,看過一生最多的別人寫的市場調查報告。

接觸「職場職牧」(Workplace Chaplaincy)

Fist Meeting with Dr. Ricky Szeto in 2014Second Meetin gwith Dr. Ricky Szeto in 2017

神啊,你讓我接觸「職場職牧」(Workplace Chaplaincy) 是在亞特蘭大的 CBMC 世界年會上。那年是2014年,我還是播道會下其中一間最大堂會的全職牧者。回港之後,在教會內發起普通話職場事工,培育在職普通話在職新移民。在那些年,我認識了司徒永富博士,今天他成為我的教牧學博士論文督導。
我響往職場牧養關懷,之後幾年,我在浸會醫院修習臨床牧關(CPE),以牧飬職場弟兄姊妹,成為職場牧者為生命追求。這些修練,孕育了今天我的研究內容。

實踐職場牧飬

2016年我在商界福音機構 CBMC 任總幹事,主領一次國際會議,把職場事工與世界各地領袖交流,奠定我回應你呼召成為職場牧者(職牧)的心。
八年了,我在神學院進修教牧學和輔導學、心理治療學亦已踏上第六年了。豐富的教牧學裝備和實習讓我在教牧輔導和教牧心理治療,由響往到接受訓練,由訓練到收費服務。這些經驗,都讓我「不甘心、不平庸、不平凡」的要以硏究,達成主呼召我成為「職牧」的夢。

研究職場牧養關懷

人生有幾多個八年,回望過去,你在拖拉著我的手,朝向你呼召我成為香港少數的職場牧者,有心推動「職場牧飬關懷」,回應大時代的需要。
我見証著「萬事都互相效力,叫愛神的人得益處」。主是大牧者。主的羊有在圈內(教會內)的,也有在圈外(職場的,疏離教會的)。你讓我看見主的羊都要歸回大牧者管理(詩23;以西結書34:16-17;及約十11-16)。

守著異象

我會守著這異象。為你,也獻給你這項硏究。這是你多年裝備我,引領我,仿效你牧飬圈外之羊,領歸大牧者管理。
主,多謝你在我生命中引領我、裝備我,使用我。路是窄路,我順服。我無怨無悔。以你為樂。
感恩禱告,奉耶穌名求。阿們。
2022/10/19 04:20-0528 am

相關連結

  1. 這是神聖的任務,神聖的時刻,我為此而感到任重道遠 – 周志堅 2022/6/26

https://bit.ly/3buZ450

2. 職場牧者的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence of Workplace Chaplaincy)

 https://bit.ly/3IsrV6x

3.  周志堅的生命見証 – 行在主的信實恩典之中  https://bit.ly/3uGIiXn

從雅比斯的禱告看出講道經文的重點 – 周志堅

從雅比斯的禱告看出講道經文的重點

– 周志堅

https://bit.ly/3ro21Jk

熟讀聖經的人不一定能講好道。我平均用40小時準備一篇40分鐘的道。先禱告求經文,逐字逐句解經,釋出原文重點、組織道的主題層次論點論句例子應用,寫下反覆修改。其間不停禱告。聖靈有時會教你如何講,並給予例子。講道之時不花巧,隱藏自己,彰顯神的話語。本文從雅比斯的禱告看出經文的重點。

Pastor Augustine Preaching Room

How to Make a Sermon

講道需要學和練

熟讀聖經的人不一定能講好道。我平均用40小時準備一篇40分鐘的道。先禱告求經文,逐字逐句解經,釋出原文重點、組織道的主題層次論點論句例子應用,寫下反覆修改。其間不停禱告。聖靈有時會教你如何講,並給予例子。講道之時不花巧,隱藏自己,彰顯神的話語。

寫一篇好講章

Logos.com 提議寫一篇好講章有八個步驟。以今天牧師講的一篇道:雅比斯的禱告為例,分析一下講這篇道的不同進路,和經文的主旨。

在聖經中,出現雅比斯的經文只有三句:

—————————-
55 和住雅比斯眾文士家的特拉人、示米押人、蘇甲人.這都是基尼人利甲家之祖哈末所生的。 (1 Chr. 2:55 CU5)
9 雅比斯比他眾弟兄更尊貴、他母親給他起名叫雅比斯、意思說、我生他甚是痛苦。
10 雅比斯求告以色列的 神說、甚願你賜福與我、擴張我的境界、常與我同在、保佑我不遭患難、不受艱苦. 神就應允他所求的。
(1 Chr. 4:9-10 CU5)
—————————–

這段經文提到幾個重要的概念:

1)母親生他甚是痛苦(重點是母親生孩子的苦)
2)雅比斯求告以色列的神(求告真神的重要)
3)求神賜福、擴張境界(這兩者的關係和意義)
4)求常與同在、保有不遭患難,不受艱苦(回應母親生她之苦)
5)神應允他所求。(為何應允)

這段經文的重點是什麼呢?

– a) 是毋親的苦(4:9)與雅比斯禱告的關係麼?
– b) 是雅比斯最簡短的禱告表現的智慧麽?
– c) 是為何神會應允這様禱告麼?
進路a) 會帶你進入猶大家譜,雅比斯為何比眾弟兄更尊貴,母親生產的痛苦,從而可以討論亞當夏娃的犯罪,最對家庭及子女的影響。
進路 b) 會帶你進入禱告的智慧,他禱告中兩個是關於物質方面(擴張境界和從疼痛中脫離,他的名字聽起來像是希伯來文的「疼痛」),而兩個是關於他與神的關係(祝福和神保護的手)。前兩個求對於求智慧,求擴張境界,與求神的國、神的義有何關係?我們應該怎樣禱告才能有屬靈的能力?
進路c) 會比較神對所羅門禱告求智慧,以利沙禱告求神的靈降臨、雅比斯禱告求不遭禍害及擴張境界在不同處境下蒙神應允的原因。

到底什麼才是這段經文的重點呢?這段經文沒有上文,也沒有下理。

個人以為單從a、b、c三個進路去解釋這段經文(雖然聽過不少講道是這種進路)都難免以偏蓋全。離開了經文著重點講「比弟兄到尊貴」、「母親生他甚苦」,都會錯過這段經文的重要主旨。

一個可能的重點是這樣

雅比斯為我們樹立了一個充滿活力的禱告榜樣。當我們面對痛苦或苦難、困難或麻煩時,我們必須學習向主呼求幫助。如果我們不大聲呼喊,我們就會愚蠢地行事。因為主應許會垂聽我們的禱告,幫助我們度過痛苦、苦難和困難。
無論我們面對什麼,上帝都應許會幫助我們。我們沒有得到幫助的原因只有兩個:我們只是忽略了祈求,或者我們沒有在主面前順服地生活。我們若犯罪,耶和華必不聽。如果我們不求,主就听不見我們,因為我們沒有向祂高聲。(太7:7;太26:41; 可11:24;路18:1;約15:7;雅5:13-14;5:15-18;約一3:12;耶29:13)
但是,如果我們像孩子一樣順從地走在他父親的前面,如果我們尋求幫助,耶和華就會聽我們的。他會聽到我們的聲音,就像任何慈愛的父親會聽到他順從的孩子一樣。

耶和華必為我們行,正如祂為雅比斯所做的:

⇒ 他將把他最豐富的祝福傾倒在我們身上。
⇒ 他會擴大我們的領土,滿足我們的每一個需要,而且常常是豐富的(太 6:33)。
⇒ 他會給予他的同在,引導和幫助我們度過任何痛苦或困難的每一步。
⇒ 他會拯救我們脫離邪惡,加強我們的力量,讓我們勝利地走過所有的苦難和痛苦、困難和困難。
至於怎樣把這段經文講得好,就是講員受聖靈感動組織的功力了。

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有自我價值認同困難的心理治療與心靈關顧 – 周志堅

有自我價值認同困難的心理治療與心靈關顧 – 周志堅

一位案主表達自卑自艾的習慣性自卑問題,有深層的原生家庭影響,自制能力的問題,轉移目標是線,深印神恩典的問題。我常思考我的院牧訓諌、教練訓練、輔導訓練、心理治療訓練怎樣可以為服事對象發揮最大的效力。對於一個有自我價值認同困難的受助者,可以怎樣幫助他?

https://bit.ly/3SvO3Rg

4 Layers of Pastoral Care

心理治療的進路

我也曾經歷過無父,無母親和無別人的讚賞困惑,以下的方法幫助過我:

找出原因解結

1)在輔導員指導下與拋棄了自己的心中的父親對話,原諒了他的拋棄;

2)在輔導員的指導下,與死去的母親就當年自己童年時不被讚賞和被強烈要求,對了話,把心中的埋怨抒發了出來。經歷了輔導的心理醫治。

3)檢視自己在童年時遭遇的不幸和冷漠,給自己帶來的正面益處,塑造了自己今天不屈不撓的性格,得到正面的力量。化軟弱為剛強。

改變行為習慣

4)學習自己稱讚自己,給自己獎勵,給自己做得好的時候的獎品,例如買一份禮物給自己獎勵自己。

5)操練每天的反思,依納爵的Examin, 並從中學習及了解神每天給我的恩典和支持,以此增強自己的力量。

以上的方法對我非常有效,能徹底解決我自卑,和自怨自艾的情緒。在剛才的教牧輔導中,我會不單止處理情緒問題,個人自我價值問題,更會聯繫上帝,處理當事人的重新得到醫治和力量的問題。

院牧牧關輔導進路

我常思考我的院牧訓諌、教練訓練、輔導訓練、心理治療訓練怎樣可以為服事對象發揮最大的效力。在院牧的處境,病人只能給你半小時、見一兩次,很多助人的方法都不管用。用最短的時間,使對方舒緩情緒,走一次內在冰山流程,探索情緒下的原因和改變動力,產生新認知和力量已經是高手所為。在CPE ,我們可以對自己作深層反省,對處境作事後神學反省,在病人的活文獻中使自己的牧關技巧可以提升。

職場牧關進路

Holistic Care

我選擇遇上的是職場牧關,特色是可以與對象進入多次有目的的會晤。每一次會晤都是一次牧者的 pastoral presence(臨場職事),進行有目的,系統式的心理治療和共同神學反省。

改變的動力

這是我目前探索的進路和操練。對我客戶而言,確立改變的動力是必須要的。他不想改變,別人就無法幫助他。她想改變,提升他改變的動力和改變後的遠見,我們就可以有效的幫助他。

所以,我昨天問的問題,對我而言是關鍵性的問題。

靈性關懷進路

一位案主表達自卑自艾的習慣性自卑問題,有深層的原生家庭影響,自制能力的問題,轉移目標是線,深印神恩典的問題。作為教牧我會引領個案向靈性關懷,審視自己與神關係,從而得到力量改變的方向。自己走過的改變路程,是一種心理治療的方法,也會是我的取向。

這是我的一次反省。

周志堅  

是香港中文大學市場學博士,伯特利神學院教牧學博士學生,及香港忠僕事奉中心但以理學院雙職職場傳道學生。他早年畢業於中國神學研究院,曾擔任教會、機構、及職場牧養關懷工作前後近十年。他在2017年已完成四期CPE訓練,在此前後,完成教練學、輔導學、教牧輔導學、及心理動力心理治療學課程。2018年在香港率先創立「心靈關懷研究社」,並設立一網上平台 (https://CareForYourSoul.com),聯同其他臨床心理學家及輔導員,率先在網上為大灣區提供網上的心靈關懷和輔導服務。過去三年,他以雙職傳道人的身份,在友邦一保險團隊中擔任職場牧者 (Workplace Chaplain) 至今。

他擁有美國 ICF 認證教練,美國基督徒輔導協會輔導員、SATIR 輔導証書、香港董事學會、及香港市務學會資深會士資格。

相關連結

  1. 這是神聖的任務,神聖的時刻,我為此而感到任重道遠 – 周志堅 2022/6/26   https://bit.ly/3buZ450

2. 什麼是教練 Coaching,心理輔導 Counseling 、心理治療 Psychotherapy ,心靈關懷Soul Care?

什麼是教練 Coaching,心理輔導 Counseling 、心理治療 Psychotherapy ,心靈關懷Soul Care?

教會是信徒的一場宣教使命運動- 周志堅

教會是神呼召的信徒在末世的一場宣教使命運動

https://bit.ly/3xisRWD

什麼是教會?

昨晚為教會禱告,神給我看見更大的教會。教會不是宗派、不是堂會、不止在地上、在人心裡、在元宇宙;以家庭、城市、職埸形式存在。教會是是神呼召的信徒在末世的一場宣教使命運動,是真理柱石根基、使人看見基督、彰顯主愛、經歷聖靈。

什麼是教會?

World Church Movement Mission

神給我的看見

如果用這定義看,我們有一個 web n.0 的教會,因為教會是一場末世基督再來前的世界動員運動,堂會、家庭教會,城市運動,職場教會運動、元宇宙教會、微教會、使命教會、簡約教會,都是一種存在的形式,這些形式應該互補並與時並進,並沒有一種形式比另外一種形式更好。

運動的方向,可以有幾方面:

1)廣傳福音、宏揚真理、彰顯主愛,
2)訓練基督門徒,使人看見基督
3)在生命中經歷聖靈,靈性成長
4)使信仰生活化,生活信仰化
有人致力發展地上堂會,有人開發元宇宙教會,有人推動城市植堂運動、我推動職場牧養關顧;這些都各自重要,但沒有一種比其他一種更重要,沒有一種能取代另一種。

普世福音運動

Give Up In Control

華人教會主力發展地上堂會,定位在福音。教會的使命就是廣傳福音使人得救,服侍鄰舍,但對於得救之後的生命建立,門徒培訓,靈性成長,就相對地沒有注重。
倫敦教會注重聖靈充滿,在傳福音、醫治、方言禱告,經歷聖靈都有特殊恩賜。
城市植堂運動把興旺福音,世人得救寄望於舉世教會植堂身上。教會多,福音廣傳到地極,就是目標。

普世差傳運動

落桑運動把世上教會聚集,確立教會普世宣教為教會使命,發動普世差傳運動。2019年落桑菲律賓會議,再把職場宣教運動納入普世教會職能關注。
在下多年來深受福音派教會影響,曾以廣傳福音為使命,後來見到信主的人一個一個受傷離開,愈發發覺單講福音遍傳,忽略門訓,是一種對大使命的誤解。
即使接納了門徒訓練是教會使命,後來亦覺不足。門徒訓練的目的,是將「凡基督所吩咐的,都教訓他們遵守,上與基督同在,直到世界的末了」。門訓的意義教導與行道、與主基督同在。過去自己對教會使命只有片面的理解。

教會植堂運動

我一直在尋索教會的真正使命,曾以為城市植堂運動答案,為城市運動感到興奮。亦曾以為職場.運動是接替城市植堂運動的下一波運動,以為發展在職場培植教會,推動職場牧養關顧運動就是答案。

使命教會運動

曾經一段日子,外國推動使命教會、網絡教會、微教会、簡約教会,都是一些補充目前超級教会發展下的空隙,起着教會互補的作用。
不同時代,神會興起不同領袖,帶領教會普及化和深化的發展。這些都很重要,也不最重要。

神給我的看見

隨着世界經濟的發展,人口的結構和生活習慣,都起了變化。聖經的普及和出版熟,促進了馬丁路德的改革運動,重歸聖經,重建五個唯獨。城市化提供了了城市植堂運動的土壤;工作變遷興起了職場運動和職場教會;超級教會出現,提供了簡約、微型、使命教會的出現;科技的革新,為元宇宙教會興起提供機會。生命是需要更新變化,教會在地上存在的形式,亦需要與時並進,適應社會的變化。神的工人,知識和技能,亦需要與時代同軌。

在地上存在的形式雖然不同,但教會的特質和使命沒有改變。

「大哉、敬虔的奧秘、無人不以為然.就是 神在肉身顯現、被聖靈稱義、〔或作在靈性稱義〕被天使看見、被傳於外邦、被世人信服、被接在榮耀裡。」 (1 Tim. 3:16 CU5)

教會不是以牧師為中心,不是以堂會為基礎,不是以事工為發展、不是以事奉教會為靈命成熟的指向。教會是基督的肉身顯現、人看見基督,感受基督捨己之愛,以致歸向基督,生命得改變(這是福音真義)。由聖靈帶領,人藉此經歷聖靈,靈命成長,以普世宣教為教會和個人的使命,使神得榮耀,個人得永生的獎賞和冠冕(這是教會的使命)。

相關連結

  1. 路10:38-42 馬利亞的上好福份釋經 – 差之毫釐,謬之千里  https://bit.ly/3cFmfe9
2. 職場牧者的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence of Workplace Chaplaincy)  2022年7月 本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3IsrV6x

3. 這是神聖的任務,神聖的時刻,我為此而感到任重道遠 – 周志堅 2022/6/26 https://bit.ly/3buZ450

4. Paul Stevens 的職場神學 – 周志堅https://bit.ly/3dk0vUY

5. |職場神學| 工作中的三一神: 周志堅    https://bit.ly/3zPa321

6. 工作即禱告、禱告即工作….周志堅   本文連結: https://bit.ly/3SCO72w

  1. 7. https://www.regent-college.edu/about-us/news/2012/marketplace-institute-establishes-relationship-with-hong-kong-university

8. 放下被需要、被認同、放棄要操控一切: 周志堅 : https://bit.ly/3vQKs7p

9 .  上好的福份   經文默想 路加福音十38-42   https://bit.ly/3SySM5x

10.  行在神的命定之中  周志堅 2022/7/25    本文連結: https://bit.ly/3cJXwVm

11. 活在失序的世界? 退修默想 – 周志堅 7/23/2022本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3PU6ttD

12. CPE 的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence in CPE) – 周志堅博士 https://bit.ly/394ZcaE

13. 翁麗玉牧師學習婚姻輔導    https://bit.ly/3jMNgw4

2022年的生日立志 – 周志堅 my

2022年的生日立志 – 周志堅

https://bit.ly/3d1mkJe

從年青的時候開始,每隔一段時間,我會為生命作一次檢討,為自己未來的歲月鎖定一些人生目標。不經不覺,原來曾經作過13次的立志,與神立約、求神恩典。今天要立志成為職場牧者,今天我立志要成為一名委身的職場牧者 (Workplace Chaplain),在有生之年,建立職場牧養關懷專業風範及生態系統 (Professional Workplace Chaplaincy EcoSystems), 普及職場宣教、實踐愛主、愛隣舍、愛職場的使命。

今天9月9日是我傳聞的生日、也是身份証上的生日。離開港台慶回歸25週年,2022重新出發青年文藝晚會,我受到節目一些青年人的鼓勵,也好想在今日生日開始之時,為自己的未來立志。

Augustine Vision 2020

Augustine Mission of Life 2019

人生的立志

立志脫貧

我的第一次立志,是10多歲,立志要脫貧,因為這是我單親的母親對獨子的期望。

我的第二次立志,是要在英文夜中學讀好英文,因為我是中文中學的學生。

立志社會服務

我的第三次立志,是在中文大學商學院第三年修讀市場學。我初次發現市場學可以應用在非牟利組織。我立志要把所學用於社會的非牟利機構。所以我的第一個市場研究計劃,是為紅十字會研究利他性的捐血行為。

立志回港服務

我的第四次立志,是在申請加州大學交換計劃獎學金,我承諾要學香港沒有的科目,曾經每週坐公巴三小時,到 UCLA 校園上課,學資信系統管理。完成所有學分的第二天,我立即回港上班,剛好用完我身上的最後一美元。

立志攀登高峰

我的第五次立志,是在美國銀行當了兩年的管理培訓生,後升至電腦系統開發高級主任。我要登上銀行的總裁位置,必要脫離系統職位,到前線市務崗位。

我的第六次立志,是在大通銀行任職產品經理, 策劃部經理後三年,我要在入行的第五年,得到銀行副總裁的職位。結果我在轉投第一太平銀行任零售銀行主管之後這個心願達成了。

立志研究及教育

我的第七次立志,是在七年內,在中文大學以兼讀形式完成我的市場學博士學位。結果在第七年,得到銀行支持,用銀行的客戶作研究,半天工作,半天研究寫論文,在期限前完成了。我相信我是中文大學商學院第一個在商界以兼職兼讀身份,能畢業的市場學博士。

我的第八次立志,是在第二次競選香港十大傑出青年的時候,對評判承諾,在中國金融業開放的日子,我會投身中國金融業。這承諾在二千年我離開匯豐銀行,轉投國內保險業,在北京友邦從最基層的代理員學習做起實現了。

彩色的人生

Blessing Others

在同年,我40歲的一次生日會上,我第九次立志下半生要有多采多姿的顏色,過多采多姿的人生。我轉換人生方向,不再堅持在銀行業終老。

立志為特區新政府服務

我的第十次立志,是要為新成立的特區政府籌謀獻策。結果在九七年,我離開第一太平銀行副行政總裁職位之後,加入香港政策研究所,任副行政總裁及研究總監實現了。

我的第十一次立志,是在匯豐銀行任職市務主管兩年之後,因911事件離開,改投國內的保險公司,我立志要在保險行業東山再起,成為外資保險公司第一把手。這心願也在保險行業七年之內完成了。

立志成為神的僕人

我的第十二次立志,是在亞公角山回應神呼召,離開保險公司,成為基督僕人,進入中國神學研究所修讀道學碩士。畢業後前後10多年,先後在教會、機構、職場,任全職傳道人,實踐自己的蒙召的承諾。

我的第十三次立志,是在2017年,還在全職浸信會教會服侍的時候,用上半年的時間禱告,祈求神讓自己進入神學院兼讀教牧學博士,求神承諾我在求學期間,不會患上重病,失明,突遭患難等等,使我能夠完成修讀教牧學博士,立志牧養主基督圈外之羊。這次與神立約,期望能於明年三月完成。也是用了另外近七年的時間。

第二階段人生

Workplace Chaplaincy Mission

如果今天立志,將是我的第14次立志,為明年畢業後的人生的路向,向神祈求另一片的天地。回想過去十三次立志,都沒有為自己求福祉,但求被神使用,在自己能做的、被呼召去做的事業上忠心服事。

立志職場牧者事奉

在今日香港經濟低迷,港人信心不足、移民者眾,行業不穩,我立志要成為一名委身的職場牧者 (Workplace Chaplain),在有生之年,建立職場牧養關懷專業風範及生態系統 (Professional Workplace Chaplaincy EcoSystems), 普及職場宣教、實踐愛主、愛隣舍、愛職場的使命。

相信這是神給我的恩賜和負擔,是神讓我進修教牧學的原委。相信就能實現。依靠就得庇祐。我信,亦信心十足。

有關文章

志堅的事奉生命 The Ministerial Life of Augustine Chow(2000 – ~)https://augustinechow.com/%e9%97%9c%e6%96%bc%e5%bf%97%e5%a0%85%e7%9a%84%e4%ba%8b%e5%a5%89%e7%94%9f%e5%91%bd-the-ministerial-life-of-augustine-chow%ef%bc%882000-%ef%bd%9e%ef%bc%89/?amp=1

  1. |職場神學| 工作中的三一神: 周志堅    https://bit.ly/3zPa321
  2. 工作即禱告、禱告即工作….周志堅   本文連結: https://bit.ly/3SCO72w
  3. https://www.regent-college.edu/about-us/news/2012/marketplace-institute-establishes-relationship-with-hong-kong-university

4.  放下被需要、被認同、放棄要操控一切: 周志堅 : https://bit.ly/3vQKs7p

5. 上好的福份   經文默想 路加福音十38-42   https://bit.ly/3SySM5x

6. 行在神的命定之中  周志堅 2022/7/25    本文連結: https://bit.ly/3cJXwVm

7. 活在失序的世界? 退修默想 – 周志堅 7/23/2022本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3PU6ttD

8. CPE 的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence in CPE) – 周志堅博士 https://bit.ly/394ZcaE

9. 翁麗玉牧師學習婚姻輔導    https://bit.ly/3jMNgw4

 

 

Ethical Discernment and Decision-Making, Augustine Chow

Ethical Discernment and Decision-Making – A Case Report from the perspective of a Workplace Chaplain

Augustine Chow

https://bit.ly/3erTsdp

 

Introduction

This is a case report about the ethical discernment and decision from the perspective of a Workplace Chaplain -making in the case of Susan, a fictitious name given to a Christian lady for whom the author is her chaplain.  She was proposing a divorce.   The dilemma was that she knew this would be against the bible teaching and the will of God.  The decision would ruin her family.  However, she had been considering it painfully and persistently for over a year.  Recently she consulted a non-Christian lawyer ready to proceed with the divorce action.  She needed discernment and advice from her chaplain.

This case report will first illustrate how the ethical dilemma case could have been handled by two prevailing approaches in ethical discernment and decision-making in the workplace context, namely the Ignatius of Loyola’s Seeking God’s Will Discernment and the Wesleyan Quadrilateral Discernment.  Then, the case report will detail how the chaplain handled the case with the clinical-based Chaplaincy Intervention approach through the “Ministry of Presence.”  In summary, the author will summarize the case experience in hindsight.

Download the article:  Augustine Chow – Ethical Discernment and Decision-making 2022

有關文章

  1. Workplace Chaplaincy The Rise, The Needs, and Its Path for Development in Hong Kong – Augustine Chow  https://bit.ly/3eucFLJ

2. |職場神學| 工作中的三一神: 周志堅    https://bit.ly/3zPa321

3. 工作即禱告、禱告即工作….周志堅   本文連結: https://bit.ly/3SCO72w

4 . https://www.regent-college.edu/about-us/news/2012/marketplace-institute-establishes-relationship-with-hong-kong-university

5.  放下被需要、被認同、放棄要操控一切: 周志堅 : https://bit.ly/3vQKs7p

6. 上好的福份   經文默想 路加福音十38-42   https://bit.ly/3SySM5x

7. 行在神的命定之中  周志堅 2022/7/25    本文連結: https://bit.ly/3cJXwVm

8. 活在失序的世界? 退修默想 – 周志堅 7/23/2022本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3PU6ttD

9. CPE 的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence in CPE) – 周志堅博士 https://bit.ly/394ZcaE

10. 翁麗玉牧師學習婚姻輔導    https://bit.ly/3jMNgw4

 

 

Workplace Chaplaincy – The Rise, The Needs, and Its Path for Development in Hong Kong by Augustine Chow

Workplace Chaplaincy The Rise, The Needs, and Its Path for Development in Hong Kong

Augustine Chow

This article is about Workplace Chaplaincy Development in Hong Kong.  It traces the roots, the needs, and the development path of workplace chaplaincy ministry.

https://bit.ly/3eucFLJ

Download Full Article Here:  Augustine Chow Workplace Chaplaincy – The Rise, The Needs, and Its Path for Development in Hong Kong 2022

Workplace Chaplaincy - It Rise, Needs and Development

Workplace Chaplaincy

Workplace chaplaincy is a form of pastoral care provided by clergies or trained laypersons paid by companies, professional associations, or ecclesial institutions to serve employees’ personal and spiritual needs at their job sites (Jablonowski and Jansen 2000; Seales 2012).[1]  It has a long history rooted in military and healthcare services.  Today, chaplaincy can also be found at schools, police, universities, fire stations, airports, business corporations, unions, prisons, and correctional services. (Winterbottom 2011)[2]

If you put the title search  “Workplace Chaplaincy” in Google Scholar, you will find more than 6,940 entries since 2018.  The subject has been most rigorously researched in the past last five years.

Why is it popular?  What exactly does a workplace chaplain do?  Is workplace chaplaincy gaining popularity in Hong Kong?  Should it be developed into a professional service in Hong Kong?  Why or why not?

In this paper, the author will explore the rise of workplace chaplaincy in the western Christian context; the underlying market needs leading to its popularity, and assess its path for professional development in Hong Kong.

The Rise

The rise of workplace chaplaincy can be traced back to the western Christian world over the 18th century.  Luther and Calvin regarded vocation as a calling into the everyday world. Work was seen as an activity by which Christians should deepen their faith, leading to a new quality of commitment to God.

The Industrial Revolution beginning in Great Britain between 1820 and 1840, marked the transition from hand production to machine production by steam and waterpower. During the Industrial Revolution, caring priests from Catholic churches were sent to the factories to pursue the religious and moral life of the workers.  Among them, some were more supportive of socialism development.

“Political conditions, such as the rejecting attitude of the church towards socialism and the critical relationship of the church with the working class, are significant in historical depictions of the German-speaking area. This becomes evident in the term “red chaplains,” which indicates possible affection to socialism by priests, especially those who took on workplace chaplaincy.”  (Wolf 2018)

The economic recession in the 1930s also gave rise to caring businesspeople for the working class.  In America, protestant businesspeople consecutively assembled the workers in the town hall for weeks to share gospels in Chicago.  The movement resumed after the Second World War, which later developed into the international movement of CBMC (Connecting Businessmen in Marketplace to Christ), a forerunner in marketplace ministry in 80 major cities across the globe.

The results of companies’ downsizing, buyouts, mergers, environmental pollution, or restructuring in the 21st century boosted American workplace chaplains with a unique approach to workplace spirituality (Wolf 2018).

Workers have become demoralized, alienated, and unable to cope with the compartmentalized nature of their work and non-work lives. The community structures are given to employees that formerly provided them with a source of meaning but are now viewed by some as less relevant. To achieve purpose in life (and therefore in the individual’s working life), it seems necessary for organizations to introduce spirituality into the workplace. The modern organization faces employee-related problems such as stress-related illnesses, burnout, absenteeism, violence, and corruption. These work-related problems are characteristic of organizations where spirituality is absent. There is a widespread belief that for 21st-century organizations to survive, their leaders and employees must tap into their spiritual resources (Marschke et al., 2011). [3]

Corporate chaplains paid by corporations and factories were hired as facilitators of sense-making for spirituality in workplaces (McKee, Mills, and Driscoll 2008; Miller and Ngunjiri 2015). The presence of a chaplain can be a sign of aims in the company that goes beyond the common purpose of production, services, and related profits.

Business workplace chaplaincy in those times emphasized the possibilities of increasing the performance, results, and efficiency of the organization and its employees (Bell 2008; Fry and Slocum 2008). Today corporate workplace spirituality is linked to “corporate social responsibility” towards employees.

  • “Professional chaplains serving in the tobacco and food processing industries and with automakers, pipe fabricators, tool manufacturers, die makers, and several other private corporations.…. The chaplain’s role is to do a clinical assessment of the client’s emotional and spiritual states, conduct stress and pain management classes, and perform pastoral counseling.” (The Greatest Story Never Told 1996)[4]
  • “Corporate chaplaincy has grown in popularity; it has evolved into three main streams of practice. The stream closely allied with the employee assistance movement comprises clinically trained clergy, most commonly with a Master of Divinity degree and often with other advanced degrees, clinical pastoral education, or other supervision. In addition, many of these clergy hold mental health licenses and have earned credentials in critical incident stress management, mediation, and outplacement.” (Dale, Three Streams of Corporate Chaplaincy 2001)[5]

Workplace chaplaincy is differently organized in these countries depending on their culture and church structures (Elwyn 1996). The following models (Figure 1) are recognizable.

In the UK, chaplaincy has been historically provided for free because it was seen as a mission of the church.  However, some groups are also financed by donations from companies or contracts with local employers who pay fees for their services. Nevertheless, workplace chaplaincy is a form of social commitment of churches (Workplace Chaplaincy Mission UK 2016).

Figure 1:  Different Models of Workplace Chaplaincy are recognized in different countries.

Source:  Wolf 2018

Is the western workplace chaplaincy development relevant and adaptive to Hong Kong?   In this second part of the paper, we shall examine the history of workplace ministry development in Hong Kong, the research findings for workplace chaplaincy in Hong Kong, its present ministry structure, and then explore the prospects of workplace chaplaincy becoming a needed profession in Hong Kong.

 

The Rise of Hong Kong Workplace Ministries

Workplace Chaplains

Change of Hong Kong Workplace Structure

In the 60s and 70s, Hong Kong emerged from a small village to a trading port with rising legal and illegal immigrants from China due to the Cultural Revolutions in China.  Starting from 1978, when Prime Minister Den of China announced its Open Door and Open Revolutions, Hong Kong became an international business hub for local and foreign investment to come into China.  Local businesses and local businesspeople became the pioneers in the China trade and direct investment in Chinese companies in China.  Due to China’s early corruption in the early day, corruption also tempted the Christians working in the marketplace.  The “sacred-secular divide” dilemma evolved from that: business Christians in Hong Kong were sacred Christians at churches on Sundays, but unethical business conduct became the norm in doing business with China outside the church.

Sacred-Secular Dilemma

To cope with such a dilemma, churches in Hong Kong formed business fellowship groups within the church.  Dedicated pastors were assigned to minister to this group so that the fellowship members could share their business discomfort and seek help from the other fellows in the group.  Ethical business making in Christianity was advocated.  For those business Christians who could not join Sunday church services, para churches began to offer weekdays fellowship gatherings during workdays, and chaplains were sent to minister to them in their offices and factories in China.,

“The Church of Christ in China, Wan Chai Branch, is one of the oldest Protestant denominations. In the past few years, the church has conducted marketplace ministries (MM) to integrate elements of MM into their existing ministries, such as career talks, financial management, and business ethics. They conducted a focus group study to gauge their expectations of MM and market research to discover congregants’ expectations of MM to offer the right programs. Some of these programs included mentorship and industry group forums.” (Li Soo Fung 2020)[6]

Vocational calling in the Workplace

Following the development of workplace fellowship groups and faith-work integration advocacy in Hong Kong, Christians in the workplace began to ask what the purpose and meaning of work were.  Paul Stephen’s “Seven Days of Faith” (2001) and “Doing God’s Business: Meaning and Motivation for the Workplace.” (2006) became their subjects for studies on the purposes and meaning of work.

Professor Philip Yeung of the China Graduate School of Theology, advocating the vocational calling from Theology of Creation, offered the divine vocational callings as the answer to the quests of the Christians in business on the purpose and meaning of work.  The China Graduate School of Theology has also provided a master’s program in marketplace theology and ministry for Christians in the workplace since 2000.  Many of the graduates now became leaders in the workplace fellowship groups. The Christian leaders led many new industry-wide fellowship groups by themselves or with the support of para churches in Hong Kong.

ParaChurch Roles in Workplace Ministries in Hong Kong

The workplace ministry development received strong support from the para churches and industries newly set up for marketplace ministry.  A few names are worth mentioning.

HKPES, Hong Kong Professional Education Services Ltd, established in 1991 by a group of believers engaged in education and business, has served as a platform for shepherding working believers. Vocation search and career planning, faithfulness to the Bible, and theology help believers practice Christianity in real situations and respond to workplace challenges.

For more than a decade, HKPES has been committed to workplace ministry, cooperating with universities, seminaries, and other institutions, holding seminars, retreats, and academic conferences, promoting research, publishing, and providing career counseling, with the goal of building believers in the workplace, and serve the churches in Hong Kong.

The Central-Gospel Mission, which aims to promote the vision and mission of workplace evangelism and pastoral care, to contact local churches to shepherd believers in the workplace, practice their faith in the workplace, and witness Christ to the working people, is another active change agent of workplace ministries in Hong Kong.

Partnering with local churches, the Central-Gospel Mission has been a partnering force in organizing business lunch gatherings in the workplace in different districts, facilitating, managing business workplace fellowship groups in various industries, training leaders in the ministry, and engaging in campus evangelistic activities for other campuses.  It was reported by Simon Ho, the Ex-Chief Officer of the Central-Gospel Mission group, that before the pandemic, they had helped organize more than 400 workplace fellowship groups in private business corporations and across all industries in Hong Kong.

The Oaks Ltd is another parachurch established in 2000 to empower small and medium-sized enterprises to do business with their mission, reshape business culture, renew their thinking, reform management, transform lives, and promote believers to practice Christianity in a business environment as a witness of the grace and justice of Christ, and share blessings.  Over the years, they have reinforced faith in the workplace for SME business owners in Hong Kong.

The Doulos Ministry Center Ltd was established some 17 years ago in Hong Kong by a missionary from Taiwan.  Since then, the institute has been training bi-vocational pastors/ missionaries[7] for the marketplace in Hong Kong.  Modeled by Jesus, in-job Christians from all walks of life were recruited to join the Daniel School, wherein three years, they will be trained to be workplace ministry leaders to start their workplace ministry groups in their organization.  Serving as missionaries in the marketplace, they have trained over 700 leaders with a strong desire and commitment to the workplace.

Types of Workplace Ministries in Hong Kong

Through the years, four types of Christian workplace ministries emerged in Hong Kong, ministered by the following types of chaplains.

(1) those ministered by church pastors in the church for its workplace fellowship only.  An example is the marketplace fellowship groups in the Church of Christ in China (CCC) Wan Chai Church.

(2) those ministered by pastors sent by churches into workplace fellowship groups. An example is the AIA Insurance Group ministered by Rev Enoch Lam

(3) those sent by para churches to minister to a particular corporation or industry workplace fellowship group.  An example is The Oaks Ltd, which ministers to Small and medium-sized business owners in Hong Kong.

(4) Those ministered by laity leaders as chaplains who are corporation employees.  An example is the Christian fellowship group in Cheung Kong, a publicly listed company in Hong Kong.

The workplace fellowship groups typically conduct weekly or bi-weekly worship by members over lunchtime, hold seasonal evangelistic events, conduct bible study/prayer meetings, run nurture programs for the newly converted, conduct disciple-making training, and run care-for-community projects in support of the corporation’s social responsibility programs. Pastoral care to the members regarding their career difficulties or family problems is an add-on auxiliary service, not a regular service of the group leaders or chaplains, probably due to a lack of time and training.

By nature of the ministry model and sources of funding, they can be classified as follows:

 

Workplace Ministry Model Leading Organization Source Funding Example
1.  Vocational Chaplaincy Model A Church or Parachurch Self-funding or by church/parachurch The Police Followership, HK Fellowship of Evangelical Students (HKFES)
2. Bi-Vocational Chaplaincy Model Self-employed chaplain or Parachurch Self-funded or by parachurch HK Doulos Ministry Center
2. Church-based Chaplaincy Model Sent by churches Funded by church via offerings The CCC Wan Chai Church
3. Corporate Laity Chaplaincy Model Corporation, factory, or listed companies Funded by salary from the organization Cheung Kong Co Ltd, HK Solicitors Fellowship Group

Ministry Gaps Identified

Four pieces of research on the Christians in the workplace and the youth sector of Hong Kong indicated gaps in faith at work integration and Christian members’ spirituality at work.

PES Faith-Work Integration 2019[8]The PES survey on Christian Faith-work Behavior with over 1000 samples  in 2003, 2010, and 2018 revealed the following findings:

  • “Work for Survival” and “Work is a Responsibility” remained at the top of significant Factors for Choosing a Job. Work as a mission is not the reason for their work.

 

  • “Salary and treatment” remained the primary condition, “job nature,” “personal interest,” and “Meaning of work” took up the middle position, while “Knowing God ” reluctantly ranks at the bottom of the list, not even in the top five in 2010. The results reflect that faith is still a relatively secondary consideration for Hong Kong Christians when choosing a job.

 

  • The 2018 survey showed for the first time that as many as 40% of active believers believe that the church is not paying attention to their situation.

 

  • Their ages, education levels, and years of conversion did not matter with the tension between faith and reality.

Faith at Work Integration among Well-Educated Believers[9]: S.F. Li’s quantitative  research (2020) on the faith-work integration among the Well-educated working Christians of Hong Kong Baptist Church revealed that

  • The faith practiced at the workplace does not matter with age, education level, income, residential type, work behavior, or job satisfaction. It also showed no difference between churchgoers and church-leavers.

 

  • Although discipleship or prayer training had the highest correlation with faith maturity, it is alarming that attendance at church activities, namely Sunday Service, Sunday School, fellowship, or small group meetings and discipleship or praying training, did not contribute to work behavior and job satisfaction.

 

  • Faith-work integration at the workplace is more influenced by intrinsic religious commitment, prayers, intentional discipleship training, understanding of their vocational calling in work, and missional activities than other factors. The church and fellowship teaching has little to do with their spiritual growth.

Faith at Work (FAW) Integration among Christian in the Banking, Finance, and Insurance Individuals (BSFI): In another study, Carol Fung (2021)[10] reports the following phenomenon of FAW Manifestations

  • that the workplace fellowship takes place most effectively in middle-sized companies. The larger company size may split job processes into unit departments, the less chance to experience work meaning and calling.

 

  • BFSI Christians pursue faith through groups and fellowship rather than their work behavior. In business practice, They seldom talk about faith/religion/spirituality with people they work with. BFSI workers may not openly share their ethical concerns or argue for the corporate benefit to protect self-interest and avoid workplace conflict.

 

  • The fewer hours spent in church service, the higher the scores on “Expression Verbal” in the marketplace. The results suggest that an extraordinarily high percentage of those who receive preaching and gather within a church may not speak about their faith from Monday to Friday.

 

  • that non-churchgoers, de-churched and unchurched Christians had weaker manifestations in FAW. The fragile integrations indicate alternative opportunities for ministers and pastors to reach out and shepherd those outside church buildings.

 

  • There was a negative correlation between hours spent on marketplace fellowship outside churches and FAW integration. Marketplace ministers may need to pay attention to the context and teachings in fellowship groups to fill these gaps.

 

  • that higher integration was recorded in “Enrichment of Group” probably through the corporate social responsibility programs of the company than the individual enrichment.

 

The Bakke Qualitative Research on Spirituality of Youth In HK[11] (2022):

The most current qualitative research findings on Youth spiritual growth reinforced previous studies that church teaching has little impact on youth spiritual growth.   Six qualitative factors were found where youth indicated that they would help their spirituality grow. It is noted that factors 1, 2, 4, and 6 were impact factors outside the church’s influence or the Christian fellowship.  Peer influence and media influence are more important than church teaching and preaching.

 They identified six aspects to assess factors that will hinder the youths’ spiritual growth.  Factors 1, 2, 3, and 6 are outdoor attractions.  Factors 4 and 5 relate to spiritual teaching, discipleship, and direction from spiritual leaders in the church or the fellowship groups.

Concluding Ministry Gaps in our Workplace Ministry

Based on the findings of the above four independent studies, it can be concluded that faith at work among Christian, youth, or adults in the workplace in Hong Kong, is influenced more by their prayers, personal seeking of God, devotion, and commitment to social services, than from the teaching and fellowship currently enforced in the church and workplace fellowship groups. There have been noticeable gaps in pastoral care and spiritual direction for Christians in Hong Kong, both inside and outside the church folds.

 Widening Gaps in the Workplace

Such gaps are widening as churches are losing churchgoers.  According to the 2020 Hong Kong Annual Report and the 2019 Hong Kong Church Reform Ministry Survey, it is inferred that among the 800,000 people[12] who claim to be Protestant Christians, the number of people who believe in Jesus, having left the church and have not been able to return to the church is more than double the 300,000 people in the church circle.

In Hong Kong, there are 3.5 million people on the job, which is more than 14 times the number of Christian attending churches; their working time in the workplace (44.3 hours/week)[13] is more than 11 times the time they go to church (approximately 4 hours/week).[14] It is inferred from this that contacting, shepherding, and caring for believers in the workplace is necessary and much more effective.

 We refer to our previous illustration of the workplace ministry structure in Hong Kong. We estimate that over 400 workplace ministry groups are now ministered to by the churches in Hong Kong.  Let’s assume that there are 100 members on average in each group; then, we have an estimated 40,000 individuals now being ministered in the workplace, which is less than 1% of the workforce in Hong Kong, or less than 5% of the force the Christians in Hong Kong.  95% of the Christians in the workplace and 99% of the workforce in Hong Kong have not been ministered to.

Lack of Pastoral Care Training of Workplace Chaplains in Hong Kong

Currently, no industry standard training is required for chaplains before they take up pastoral roles in the workplace.  Chaplains sent by churches typically received B.D. or MDiv training, from which pastoral counseling is only a tiny part of the training.  More emphasis is on preaching and teaching.  Hospital chaplains typically receive Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE), where the focus is on clinical pastoral care for patients in hospitals. Laity pastors in workplace fellowship usually receive biblical and theological training from their Diploma studies or Master in Christian Studies (MCS).   Perhaps, only a few had pursued coaching, counseling, workplace missionary training, clinical psychology, and psychotherapy before their ministry in the workplace as chaplains or leaders.

Worsened Gaps from Pandemic

The three years of a pandemic hitting churches and workplaces have worsened the situation.  Churches are temporarily closed; workers are sent to work at home.  While conducting worship services during COVID-19 presented a severe challenge for all the pastors, pastoral care was the aspect of pastoral ministry most disrupted by the pandemic. Ronald W. Pies (2020) recalled a four-fold assault on the Christian’s soul: feelings of impotence, grief, loneliness, and trust. [15]

Chaplains’ unique contribution to workplace Christians is to respond to the Christians’ spiritual, religious, and pastoral needs. Their sole purpose is to provide a presence and space to meet individual needs and promote healing, even when a cure isn’t possible. Their value is priceless to families in desperate times. However, despite growing evidence of their impact, chaplains are commonly undervalued and misunderstood by their organizations. The global pandemic revealed the consequences of this confusion. Some chaplains were applauded as heroes and fellow health colleagues; others were seen as less than an infection risk.

Unclear Chaplaincy Roles During Pandemics Around the Globe

A survey by Austyn Snowden (2021) [16] captured the full range of chaplain experiences of the impact of the pandemic across the globe. In June 2020, 1,657 chaplains responded from 36 countries. They all experienced considerable disruption to their usual practice, with the most significant impact of social distancing. Out of necessity, they embraced technology to maintain contact with patients and families and shifted the focus of their support to staff. While some chaplains were viewed as essential employees by their organizations, most were not. Despite the majority thinking that their organizations understood what they did, chaplains were neither transparent nor clear about their role during and post-pandemic. More surprisingly, they felt similarly unclear about their position before the pandemic.  In these circumstances, a professional body of the workplace chaplains will play an essential role in enforcing industry standards and practices among its members.

 How can Workplace Chaplains help?

Workplace chaplaincy ministry is described as a “ministry of presence.”  Pastoral presence is “more than being a nonanxious presence with another: it is an act of will that invites the divine to be present in the space surrounding another in the hope that this person may allow the divine to work in them, providing healing, meaning, and purpose.”[17]

A working definition of chaplain presence, then, is a process through which the chaplain creates an atmosphere of ease and trust so that the recipient of the chaplain’s care can share their own story in a nonjudgmental and compassionate environment. This presence has no apparent agenda and a high degree of flexibility, allowing for conversation that includes and transcends present health concerns. A key component in creating this environment is the chaplain’s emotional vulnerability in the interactions making the conversation a more mutual exploration into the stories of both the receiver of care and the care provider/ chaplain.

In providing a working operational definition of presence, Kevin Adams (2018) defines presence in four components: environment, the care receiver, caregiver response, chaplain assessment, and chaplain intervention.  Through this interactive process in the presence of the care-receiver, the chaplain gives care to the personal and spiritual needs of the care-receiver.

 Funding Required for Workplace Chaplaincy

Most chaplains from churches and para churches are funded by public offerings in the present workplace ministry structure.  In the days of the pandemic, the funding is expected to be squeezed than enriched.  However, there is a growing trend of vocational workplace chaplains, bi-vocational chaplains, and laypeople joining the workplace ministry as self-funded chaplains.

The Doulos Ministry group has been operating a Daniel School, training marketplace missionaries in a three-year program for 17 years.  The Central Gospel Mission group also introduced a 24-hour duration of marketplace disciple-making training starting this year.  Such activity will provide a continued cadet of ministers to the workplace ministry in Hong Kong.  If properly trained, they can be converted to chaplains and fund their chaplaincy services in the workplace.

The Prospects of Workplace Chaplains as a Profession in Hong Kong

Workplace chaplaincy is not a professional service in Hong Kong yet.  There has been no professional body for their pastoral and spiritual care services.  No qualifying examination and supervision nor ethical standards have been set up.

Perhaps, the Hong Kong Hospital Chaplaincy professional development paths may shed light on how workplace chaplaincy training can be enhanced to form a profession in the workplace.

Reference from Hospital Chaplaincy Development

With the influx of mainland immigrants in the 1950s, the social structure of Hong Kong underwent drastic changes. There were increasing demands for various social services, including education and medical services. The government-built hospitals one after one in the 1960s, and there were more and more Christians serving in hospitals. In addition to work, they shared the gospel with patients and were the pioneers and core members of “hospital evangelism.”

In the 1970s, Christian hospitals, local churches, and theological seminaries started to touch on “holistic healing” and studied the possibility of sending Christian chaplains to public hospitals. Eventually, before 1980, they successfully held the Conference of Holistic Healing, which set the foundation for chaplaincy service in the future.

“The development of professional chaplaincy has been in discussion for several years since a growing expectation on the roles and responsibilities of chaplaincy from the healthcare system has been identified. The Task Force for Development of Professional Chaplaincy was formed under the Association of Hong Kong Hospital Christian Chaplaincy Ministry (AHKHCCM) in April 2006.

 A survey on issues related to professionalization was conducted from September to October 2006, in which 69 questionnaires were received, and the response rate was high at 81%. Among the respondents, 93% supported the development, and 81% agreed that the time was ripe for such a development. Moreover, 71% supported forming a professional group to monitor ethical standards of professional chaplains, and the group was suggested to set up under AHKHCCM at the early phase.” (Professional Chaplaincy— Its Role and Significance in Healthcare Service)[18]

The Need for a Professional Body for Workplace Chaplaincy

Getting the incumbents’ consensus in workplace ministry to form a professional body is probably the first step toward developing workplace chaplaincy in Hong Kong.

Workplace Chaplains have been established as a self-governing professional body in America and England.  The Workplace Chaplaincy Mission UK[19], The National Association of Veterans Affairs Chaplains (NAVAC), the National VA Black Chaplains Association, the Jewish Chaplains Association, The National Institute of Business and Industrial Chaplains (NIBIC), the Latin American Association of Chaplaincy and Clinical Ministries (LAACCM), while The Association of Professional Chaplains (APC) is the largest chaplain cognate group in the USA.

The Need is There

This paper demonstrates that the need for pastoral and spiritual care in the workplace is strong. Present faith in work integration and pastoral care in the workplace has enormous room for improvement.

The workplace in Hong Kong and else in the world is changing drastically, and so is people’s need for spiritual renewal in the face of God.  Workplace chaplaincy has almost been a church mission. In-house chaplaincy by para churches and laity chaplains expedites the fulfillment of spiritual needs in the workplace.  The rent-a-chaplain demonstrated overseas can evolve as the needs arise.   The next step is strengthening the present marketplace pastors, chaplaincy, and disciples training to incorporate pastoral care and shepherding skills through the Clinical rural education program for workplaces.

The Time is Ripe

More than 400 workers are already there.  The ministries have been in operation over the past decades.  Vocational, bi-vocational chaplains and laypeople have been deployed.  Yet the training for professional pastoral care and soul care for the workplace workers are lacking.  The consensus to develop into such a professional association for defining professional and ethical standards and developing professionals is yet to materialize.

Pilot Training Program has been Lined Up.

The author has been praying to set up an Association for Professional Workplace Chaplaincy in Hong Kong.  The first step is to invite the incumbents from the ministry to share ideas.   If the felt needs are there, begin recruiting members from the existing ministry leaders, church pastors, and workplace chaplains already in the workplace ministries to form the professional body.   Their training and professional development needs will be examined and agreed upon.   There had been a discussion between the author and a CPE training center that they could offer a pilot CPE-type training program for the training of workplace chaplains.  The training methodology adapted from the CPE for hospital chaplains can be modified and tested to cater to pastoral care for workplace people.  [20]

Conclusion

In conclusion, the need for workplace chaplains is there.  The development path is clear.  The model has been proven.  The pilot training program has been lined up.  The benefits are long-awaited. Further actions are required.   It is the ripe time to start the development shortly after the pandemic.   WWhomis God sending to start this work? (5,394 words)

 References

Adam, Kevin, “Defining and Operationalizing Chaplain Presence: A Review,” Journal of Religion and Health (2019) 58:1246–1258.

 

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Caperon, John, Andrew Todd, and James Walters, Edit, The Christian Theology of Chaplaincy,” Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London, and Philadelphia, 2017.

Crick, Robert D., and Brandelan S. Miller, “Outside the Gates: Theology, History, and Practice of Chaplaincy Ministry,” HigherLife Development Services, Inc, 2011.

Elwyn, T. 1996. Industrial Mission: A Reflection. Baptist Quarterly 36 (5): 228–240.

Fung, Tak Yan Carol, “Exploring Manifestations of Faith-Work Integration in the Banking, Finance Services, and Insurance Industry in Hong Kong, Unpublished DMin Dissertation, Bethel Bible Seminary, 2020.

Fry, L. W., and J. W. Slocum. 2008. “Maximizing the Triple Bottom Line through Spiritual Leadership.”

Gallagher, Brian Joseph, Discernment of Spirits, the Corner-stone of Formation of Spiritual Directors, Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Divinity, 2018.

Heydt, Margo J. and Timothy E. Severyn, “Spirituality, Diversity, and Ethical Decision-making: The Inclusive Wesleyan Quadrilateral Discernment Model,” International Journal of Social Work Values and Ethics Volume 19, Number 1 (2022), 37-64.

Jablonowski, H. W., L. Jansen, and R. Mempel. 1998. Die betriebsbezogene Arbeit der Kirchen – eine Bestandsaufnahme [The Company-Related Work of Churches – A Survey]. Research report. Bochum: SWI.

Kennedy, S. John, “Rekindling the Role of Affectivity in Ignatian Discernment of Spirits in the Context of Christian Life Communities in Darjeeling, India,” Unpublished Dissertation, Jesuit School of Theology, Santa Clara University. May 2017.

Keven, Adams, “Defining and Operationalizing Chaplain Presence: A Review,” Journal of Religion and Health (2019) 58:1246–1258.

Li Soo Fung, The Practice and Influence of Faith in the Work Context of Well-Educated Christians in Hong Kong, Unpublished DMin Dissertation, Bethel Bible Seminary, 2020.

Marschke, E., Preziosi, R., & Harrington , W.J . (2011) . How sales personnel view the relationship between job satisfaction and spirituality in the workplace, Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict, 15, 71 – 110.

McKee, M. C., J. H. Mills, and C. Driscoll. 2008. “Making Sense of Workplace Spirituality: Towards a New Methodology.” Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion 5 (2): 190–210.

Miller, D. W. 2007. GOD at WORK: The History and Promise of the Faith at Work Movement. New York: Oxford University Press.

——–, and F. W. Ngunjiri. 2015. “Leadership Views on Corporate Chaplains: Business, Sociocultural, and Spiritual Justifications.” Journal of Management Spirituality & Religion 12 (2): 129–155.

Miller, Kent, D., “Discernment in management and organizations,” Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 2020, VOL. 17, No. 5, 373–402.

Scadron, Dale, “The Chaplaincy Certification Program,” Author Reputation Press LLC, 2021.

Seales, C. E. 2012. “Corporate Chaplaincy and the American Workplace.” Religion Compass 6 (3): 195–203.

Snowden, Austyn, “What Did Chaplains Do During the Covid Pandemic? An International Survey,” Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling 2021, Vol. 75(1S) 6–16.

Winterbottom, I. 2011. Introduction of Paper of Working Group on Chaplaincy and Religion in the Workplace – Church Action on Labour and Life European Contact Group and Work Integration and Religion. Project Report. Nettingsdorf: Betriebsseelsorge und Katholische Arbeiterbewegung Linz – Land.

Introduction of Paper of Working Group on Chaplaincy and Religion in the Workplace – Church Action on Labour and Life European Contact Group and Work Integration and Religion. Project Report. Nettingsdorf: Betriebsseelsorge und Katholische Arbeiterbewegung Linz – Land.

Wolf, Tanja and Birgit Feldbauer-Durstmüller, “Workplace chaplaincy: a literature review,” Journal of Management, Spirituality & religion, 2018 Vol. 15, no. 1, 38–63

Notes

[1]          Wolf, Tanja and Birgit Feldbauer-Durstmüller, “Workplace chaplaincy: a literature review,” Journal of Management, Spirituality & religion, 2018 Vol. 15, no. 1, 38–63

[2]     Winterbottom, I. 2011. Introduction of Paper of Working Group on Chaplaincy and Religion in the Workplace – Church Action on Labour and Life European Contact Group and Work Integration and Religion. Project Report. Nettingsdorf: Betriebsseelsorge und Katholische Arbeiterbewegung Linz – Land.

[3]    Der Walt, Freda Van and  Jeremias J. De Klerk, “Workplace spirituality and job satisfaction,”  International Review of Psychiatry, June 2014; 26(3): 379–389

Marschke , E. , Preziosi , R. , & Harrington , W.J . (2011) . How sales personnel view the relationship between job satisfaction and spirituality in the workplace . Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Confl ict , 15 , 71 – 110 .

 

[4]   Guest Editorial, The Greatest Story Never Told, Editorial, The Journal of Pastoral Care, Vol 50, Spring 1996.

[5]   EAP Association, EAPA Exchange, May/ June 2001.

[6]   Li, Soo Fung, “The Practice and Influence of Faith in the Work Context of Well-Educated Christians in Hong Kong,”, Unpublished DMin Dissertation, the Bethel Bible Seminary, 2020..

[7]   The word “bi-vocational” pastors means that the person will be taking up two roles in their work, a worker in the organization they belong, and a minister also in the organization with evangelistic missions as part of their life goals.

[8]   2018 HKPES香港在職信徒工作處境調查──初步報告  https://www.hkpes.com/2018-hkpes%e9%a6%99%e6%b8%af%e5%9c%a8%e8%81%b7%e4%bf%a1%e5%be%92%e5%b7%a5%e4%bd%9c%e8%99%95%e5%a2%83%e8%aa%bf%e6%9f%a5%e5%a0%b1%e5%91%8a%e6%a6%82%e8%a6%81%ef%bc%88%e4%b8%80%ef%bc%89/ (050502022

[9]   Li Soo Fung, The Practice and Influence of Faith in the Work Context of Well-Educated Christians in Hong Kong, Unpublished DMin Dissertation, Bethel Bible Seminary, 2020.

[10]   Fung, Tak Yan Carol, “Exploring Manifestations of Faith-Work Integration in the Banking, Finance Services, and Insurance Industry in Hong Kong, Unpublished DMin Dissertation, Bethel Bible Seminary, 2020.

[11]    Bakke Center, HK, A Qualitative Study on Your Spirituality, in Christian Times, and Urban Transformation, Bakke Monthly Newsletter Issue 26, May, 2022, https://christiantimes.org.hk/Common/Reader/News/ShowNews.jsp?Nid=168735&Pid=104&Version=0&Cid=2052&Charset=gb2312, 25 May, 2022.

[12]     Hong Kong Government Annual 2020, https://www.yearbook.)gov.hk/2020/tc/pdf/C21.pdf (2022/4/27) and Xu JT, ”How many Christians are there in Hong Kong?”, Bethel Bible Seminary Newsletter, 2018-10-8

[13]    HK Government Statistics, “2021Income and Wages Report,” 2021, Page 78 https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/en/data/stat_report/product/B1050014/att/B10500142021AN21B0100.pdf

[14]     Assuming 2 hours of worship and 2 hours of ministry in the church

[15]   Ronald W. Pies , “Care of the Soul in the Time of COVID-19,” Psychiatric Times, 2020, owensborohealth.org

[16]   Snowden, Austyn, “What Did Chaplains Do During the Covid Pandemic? An International Survey,” Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling 2021, Vol. 75(1S) 6–16.

[17]   Mark Larocca-Pitts, “Holding space: Pastoral presence for a new age,” PlainViews 6, no. 15 (September 2, 2009). http://plainviews.healthcarechaplaincy.org/archive/AR/c/v6n15/pp.php

[18]   Association of Hong Kong Hospital Chaplaincy Ministry, “Professional Chaplaincy— Its Role and Significance in Healthcare Service,” page 14, 2009.

 [20]   The author has received full courses of 3600 hours of CPE training. Discussion with the CPE training body revealed that the CPE training is good for the training of workplace chaplains.  We need to start training supervisors for such training in a pilot scheme to begin.

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路10:38-42 馬利亞的上好福份釋經 – 差之毫釐,謬之千里

路10:38-42 馬利亞的上好福份釋經 – 差之毫釐,謬之千里

本文連結: https://bit.ly/3cFmfe9

馬利亞的上好福份釋經 (路10:38-42 )

工作是否有聖俗之分? 在教會事奉神就最好?

Luk 10.38-42 Exegesis 路加福音十38-42 原文釋經

 

路加福音10章38-42

正確解經 路10:38-42


 

曾經以為當牧師最高尚、最神聖、最蒙神喜悅。是故,浸禮後第一天就問牧師,怎樣才可以讀神學,做聖職。
是眾人對馬大、馬利亞的經文一直有誤解,以為耶穌稱讚馬利亞選擇了上好的福份,所以拋下工作到教會去事奉就是最好。自己也曾受此影響很深很深。
相信今天仍然有人如此解經,親近耶穌就最好,忙於煮飯工作就失去了上好的福分。
我答應了自己,要再詳細深入的再讀這段經文,尋求真理!

和合本和希臘文聖經

Luk 10:38-42

38 他們走路的時候、耶穌進了一個村莊.有一個女人名叫馬大、接他到自己家裡。

38  Ἐν δὲ τῷ πορεύεσθαι αὐτοὺς αὐτὸς εἰσῆλθεν εἰς κώμην τινά· γυνὴ δέ τις ὀνόματι Μάρθα ὑπεδέξατο αὐτόν.

39 他有一個妹子名叫馬利亞、在耶穌腳前坐著聽他的道。

 39  καὶ τῇδε ἦν ἀδελφὴ καλουμένη Μαριάμ, [ἣ] καὶ παρακαθεσθεῖσα πρὸς τοὺς πόδας τοῦ κυρίου ἤκουεν τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ.

40 馬大伺候的事多、心裡忙亂、就進前來說、主阿、我的妹子留下我一個人伺候、你不在意麼.請吩咐他來幫助我。

 40  ἡ δὲ Μάρθα περιεσπᾶτο περὶ πολλὴν διακονίαν· ἐπιστᾶσα δὲ εἶπεν· κύριε, οὐ μέλει σοι ὅτι ἡ ἀδελφή μου μόνην με κατέλιπεν διακονεῖν; εἰπὲ οὖν αὐτῇ ἵνα μοι συναντιλάβηται.

41 耶穌回答說、馬大、馬大、你為許多的事、思慮煩擾.

 41  ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ ὁ κύριος· Μάρθα Μάρθα, μεριμνᾷς καὶ θορυβάζῃ περὶ πολλά,

42 但是不可少的只有一件.馬利亞已經選擇那上好的福分、是不能奪去的。

  42  ἑνὸς δέ ἐστιν χρεία· Μαριὰμ γὰρ τὴν ἀγαθὴν μερίδα ἐξελέξατο ἥτις οὐκ ἀφαιρεθήσεται αὐτῆς. (Lk. 10:38-42 BGT)

新漢語譯本

38 他們繼續前行,耶穌*進了一個村莊。有一個名叫馬大的女人接待他*。 39 馬大有個妹妹,叫馬利亞,坐在主的腳前,聽他說話。* 40 馬大卻為許多服侍客人的事心裏煩躁。她上前對耶穌說:「主啊,我妹妹撇下我一個人服侍,你不管嗎?請吩咐她來幫助我。」41 主對她說:「馬大馬大,你為許多事憂心煩惱, 42 但只有一件事是必需的*。馬利亞已經選擇了最好的*一份*,是沒有人能從她那裏奪去的。」

文法聖經

38. 他們走路的時候,耶穌進了(1525vi.過)一個村莊。有一個女人,名叫馬大,(5264vi.過.D)他到自己家裡。

39. 她有(2258vi.不完)一個妹子79,名叫(vp)馬利亞,在耶穌腳前坐著(vp)(191vi.不完)他的道。

40. 馬大伺候的事多,心裡忙亂(4049vi.不完.被),就進前來(vp),說:「主啊,(3754)我的妹子留下(2641vi.過)我一個人伺候(1247vn.現),你不在意(3199vi.現)嗎?請吩咐(2036VM.過)她(2443)來幫助(4878VS.過.D)我。」

41. 耶穌回答(vp)說:「馬大!馬大!你為許多的事思慮(3309vi.現)煩擾(5182vi.現.被),

42. 但是(2076vi.現)不可少的5532只有一件;馬利亞已經選擇(1586vi.過.關身)那上好的福分,是不能奪去的。」

vp verb participle     vi verb infinitve    vm verb command

vi verb indicative


最初聽到的解經

第一次在教會講壇聽到一位牧者解釋這段經文,給我的印象是和基督親近,比一切事奉都重要。馬大為耶穌準備膳食,照顧耶穌的身體需要,不及馬利亞坐在耶穌腳前,親近主,親近主的福份,是上好的,是不能奪去的。

由此教導可以推斷,如果教會有祈禱會,你又有其他工作事務,如果你不選擇參加祈禱會,就會喪失了上好的福分,是不應該的。是給人印象你是貪戀嗎門,不貪戀親近主。

由此再推斷,在教會全職事奉主,親近主,比參加世俗的工作更為高尚聖潔,因為這是上好的福分,是不能奪去的。

相信上述的論點,弟兄姊妹都會在不同的教會中聽過,又或者有如此的印象。工作是世俗的,為主工作,即使是照顧教會的飲食事奉,也不及來到主面前,親近主,聽他的教導重要。

“One Necessary Thing ”  ,原文是 “ἑνὸς δέ ἐστιν χρεία (BGT)”。 英文是 “but one thing is necessary (ESV)” , “but only a few things are necessary (NAS)”。和合本翻譯成為「不可少的只有一件」,是翻譯出了問題。

1) 原文是「必須」而不是「缺少」; 2) 是「幾件 a few」而不是「一件」。「幾件必須要的事」,瑪莉亞已經選擇了「好的部份」(has chosen a good portion) (ἀγαθὴν μερίδα ἐξελέξατο (BGT)。原文並沒有「上好」而是「好 good」。沒有指明是「福份」,而是「部份」。看來, 和合本在翻譯的時候,已經加鹽加醋,特別要顯出親近主比服侍主更為重要。這已經是超出聖經原文的原意了。可能這就是我多年來被誤導的原因。

怪只怪自己誤信講壇的講道,沒有深入研究。

從上文下理去解釋聖經

其實研究經文,一定要從上文下理去入手。而不能憑空抽一段單作解釋。這段經文的上文是「你要盡心、盡性、盡力、盡意、愛主你的 神.又要愛鄰舍如同自己」。 (Lk. 10:25-29 );接着是撒瑪利亞人照顧鄰舍的經文(路10:30-37)。兩段經文講的是愛主、愛鄰舍,是對上帝「宏觀的愛」。接着到馬大馬利亞的故事,並非獨立,而是只對上帝「深入的愛」。3段連貫一起,表示我們從盡心盡已盡性愛主,因而轉移到愛鄰舍,具體的實踐,是親近主,「在耶穌腳前坐著聽他的道」。 (10:39 )

注意:重點是聽耶穌的教導,也就是說,愛主愛鄰舍的實踐,是要「聽耶穌的教導」。這在一切的事上,「是幾件必須做的事,是好的部份」。原文原意沒有貶低為耶穌準備飯送的廚房工作,沒有說這不重要,沒有說「工作」不重要,經文重點說明,在所有的工作中必須要做的幾件事,就是聽耶穌的道。

這是馬利亞的選擇。人可以有很多的選擇,有為主服侍的,照顧飯餸飲食的,有道教堂去做全職事奉的,有在做最卑微工作的,無論是什麼工作的種類,無論是有沒有直接服侍主的關係,原文指出這都是一種服侍。和合本翻譯是「伺候」(10:40 出現兩次)。原文用 διακονίαν· (10:40 BGT)兩次,是僕人在餐枱前的服事,這個字出現在馬太福音四章11節天使伺候耶穌,在監里伺候耶穌 (太25:44) ;伺候祭壇(林前9:13,希7:13);伺候主人(門1:13);伺候聖徒(希6:10)。這種伺候都是一種聖職。

耶穌批評的要點

要注意,馬大在這段經文中,做錯了三件事,影響了他得不到好的部份…

  1. 馬大伺候的事多、心裡忙亂 (Lk. 10:40 CU5)
  2. 向主投訴: 「主阿、我的妹子留下我一個人伺候、你不在意麼?」 (Lk. 10:40 CU5)
  3. 命令主幫助他分擔她的工作,成就她自己的事奉。「請吩咐他來幫助我。」 (Lk. 10:40 CU5)

在事奉中忙亂,同一時間事奉的事多、抱怨、投訴、指責別人沒有幫助,並請求主內吩咐他人,成就自己的心意,這都是事奉者犯上的錯誤。也是耶穌要借此機會教導她的地方。

耶穌還是和顏悅色的對她說:馬大、馬大,重複兩次,表達他的誠意和親善。指出她的問題: 「你為許多的事、思慮煩擾」. (Lk. 10:41 CU5)。原文是兩個動詞憂心煩惱 distracted and troubled (μεριμνᾷς καὶ θορυβάζῃ (Lk. 10:41 BGT)。是分心不專注,同一時間就受困擾。她知道她在事奉的時候心懷不平,以為她在做一件為主耶穌準備膳食的重要事奉工作,為什麼馬利亞不來幫忙,這種不平終於由他口裏說出來,請求主吩咐馬利亞來幫助她。心懷不平的心情去事奉,也使他的事奉得不到好的部份。

工作並沒有聖俗之分,聽主的道才是最重要

原文的要點是要聽主的教導,作為愛主、愛鄰舍的重要行動。坐在耶穌腳前,不是最重要的,聽主的話才是最重要的。在耶穌腳前 (Lk. 10:39 CU5) “παρακαθίσασα παρὰ τοὺς πόδας” (Lk. 10:39 BYZ) (Sitting beside his foot)其中「坐」是個分詞(participle)表示動作的時態,;「聽耶穌的道」Ἰησοῦ ἤκουεν τὸν λόγον αὐτοῦ. (Lk. 10:39 BYZ)其中的「聽」是一個目的性的分詞 infinitive to 。

所以這段經文並沒有指出親近主比事奉主更優勝。沒有親近主這個意思,更沒有優勝的意思。「聽主的道」是必須要做的幾件事。也是不能奪去「好的部份」(指愛主、愛憐憫的關鍵。)

正確的理解

感恩,我對這段經文有新的理解。賣樓、賣地、辭工、讀神學、終身在教會事奉主,並沒有比誰更優勝,比誰更神聖,比誰更值得別人誇贊。在世俗工作也是事奉神(西3:16)

無論作甚麼、或說話、或行事、都要奉主耶穌的名、藉著他感謝父 神。 (Col. 3:17 CU5)。無論作甚麼、都要從心裡作、像是給主作的、不是給人作的。 (Col. 3:23 CU5)   任何工作都可以伺候神。工作就是是伺候神、敬拜神、感謝神。

因你們知道從主那裡、必得著基業為賞賜.你們所事奉的乃是主基督。 (Col. 3:24 CU5)

阿們。

參考:
  1. Nolland, John. Luke 9:21–18:34. Word, Incorporated, 1993, pp. 603–04.
  2. Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1997, pp. 433–37.

注釋書參考

相關連結

  1. 職場牧者的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence of Workplace Chaplaincy)  2022年7月 本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3IsrV6x

2. 這是神聖的任務,神聖的時刻,我為此而感到任重道遠 – 周志堅 2022/6/26 https://bit.ly/3buZ450

3. Paul Stevens 的職場神學 – 周志堅https://bit.ly/3dk0vUY

4. |職場神學| 工作中的三一神: 周志堅    https://bit.ly/3zPa321

5. 工作即禱告、禱告即工作….周志堅   本文連結: https://bit.ly/3SCO72w

  1. 6. https://www.regent-college.edu/about-us/news/2012/marketplace-institute-establishes-relationship-with-hong-kong-university

7. 放下被需要、被認同、放棄要操控一切: 周志堅 : https://bit.ly/3vQKs7p

8.  上好的福份   經文默想 路加福音十38-42   https://bit.ly/3SySM5x

9.  行在神的命定之中  周志堅 2022/7/25    本文連結: https://bit.ly/3cJXwVm

10. 活在失序的世界? 退修默想 – 周志堅 7/23/2022本文連結:  https://bit.ly/3PU6ttD

11. CPE 的臨場職事 (The Ministry of Presence in CPE) – 周志堅博士 https://bit.ly/394ZcaE

12. 翁麗玉牧師學習婚姻輔導    https://bit.ly/3jMNgw4

 

 

 

Spatial 及 AltSpaceVR 教堂導賞 – 香港元宇宙教會周志堅傳道

Spatial 及 AltSpaceVR 教堂導賞 – 香港元宇宙教會周志堅傳道

我願做導遊,帶領大家進入不同的完宇宙教堂

或者,一同經歷耶穌在加利利海的宣教路
有興趣參加的,請聯絡我下一次導賞時間
周志堅傳道敬約

有關連結:

  1. |香港元宇宙教會| 來自阿聯酋的 ANGELINA 在元宇宙基督徒中文團契 ALTSPACEVR 中的「新季節、新方向」現場錄影見証分享 06/05/2022:https://bit.ly/3MelILX

2. 元宇宙教會數碼空間巡禮 : https://bit.ly/3xh5cGA

3. 香港元宇宙教會 (MetaVerse Church HK)發展策略及神學願景初探:https://bit.ly/36GzxDU

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